TOTAL KNEE AND HIP ARTHROPLASTY
TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY (THA) SYSTEMS
Total hip arthroplasty (THA), also known as total hip replacement or implant, is a surgical procedure in which a damaged or diseased hip joint is replaced with an artificial prosthesis. THA is a surgical solution that aims to alleviate pain, improve mobility, and restore function in individuals with hip joint conditions such as osteoarthritis, fractures, or other degenerative conditions. The medical devices used in this procedure are also called THA systems or prosthetic products. The prosthesis used in THA consists of several components that work together to restore joint function and alleviate pain. The components typically included in a THA product are:
1. Femoral Component: It is the part that replaces the femoral head. It consists of a metal stem that is inserted into the femur and a ball-shaped metal or ceramic head that articulates with the acetabular component.
2. Acetabular Component: It replaces the damaged acetabulum in the pelvis. It is a cup-shaped component made of metal, often with a liner made of polyethylene (UHMWPE).
3. Liner: It is a component that sits inside the acetabular component and provides a smooth surface for the femoral head to articulate against. It is typically made of polyethylene (UHMWPE), which is a durable and low-friction material.
4. Acetabular Cup: It is a component that holds the acetabular liner in place. It is usually made of metal such as titanium and has a porous surface to allow for bone ingrowth and fixation.
5. Femoral Head: It is the ball-shaped component that articulates with the acetabular component. It can be made of metal, ceramic, or a combination of materials.
6. Modular Components: Some THA systems also include modular components, which allow for customization and intraoperative adjustments. These may include modular necks, which provide options for different leg lengths and offsets, or modular liners with varying thicknesses.
It’s important to note that there are various THA product options available from different manufacturers, and the specific components and designs may vary. The choice of THA product is determined by factors such as the patient’s anatomy, the surgeon’s preference, and the patient’s specific needs.
The selection and implantation of THA components should be performed by qualified orthopedic surgeons who have expertise in joint replacement surgery. They will assess the patient’s condition, consider factors such as bone quality, range of motion, and stability, and choose the appropriate THA product for the individual patient’s needs.
TOTAL KNEE PROSTHESIS (TKA) SYSTEMS
A total knee prosthesis, also known as a total knee replacement, is a surgical procedure in which a damaged or worn-out knee joint is replaced with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis. The goal of TKA is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in individuals with severe knee arthritis or other knee conditions that have not responded to non-surgical treatments. During the TKA procedure, the damaged portions of the knee joint, including the ends of the femur and tibia, are removed and replaced with artificial components.
The medical devices used in this procedure are also called THA systems or prosthetic products. The prosthesis typically consists of three components:
1. The femoral component: This part replaces the lower end of the femur. It is usually made of metal (e.g., cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum alloys) and has a curved shape to mimic the natural anatomy of the femur.
2. The tibial component: This component replaces the top of the tibia (tibial plateau). It is typically made of metal (e.g., cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum alloys) and has a flat surface on which a polyethylene insert is attached.
3. The tibial insert: Polyethylene (UHMWPE) insert acts as a cushion between the femoral and tibial components.
4. The patellar component: In some cases, the posterior surface of the patella may also be resurfaced with a polyethylene (UHMWPE) component to improve its movement and reduce friction.
These components are usually fixed to the bone using bone cement or through press-fit techniques that encourage bone growth into the prosthesis for stability.
Total knee replacement surgery is commonly performed to alleviate pain, restore mobility, and improve quality of life for individuals with severe knee osteoarthritis, joint deformity, or other knee conditions that haven’t responded to conservative treatments. It is a complex procedure that requires careful preoperative planning and postoperative rehabilitation to achieve optimal outcomes.